type casting
type casting

 

Type casting is a way to convert a variable from one data type to another data type. For example, if you want to store a long value into a simple integer then you can typecast long to int. You can convert values from one type to another explicitly using the cast operator.

New data type should be mentioned before the variable name or value in brackets which to be typecast.

C type casting example program:

In the below C program, 7/5 alone will produce integer value as 1.
So, type cast is done before division to retain float value (1.4).

1#include <stdio.h>
2int main ()
3{
4    float x;
5    x = (float) 7/5;
6    printf(“%f”,x);
7}

Output:
1.400000

What is type casting in C Language?

Converting an expression of a given type into another type is known as type-casting. typecasting is more use in c language programming.

Here, It is best practice to convert lower data type to higher data type to avoid data loss.

Data will be truncated when the higher data type is converted to lower. For example, if a float is converted to int, data which is present after the decimal point will be lost.

There are two types of typecasting in c language.

Types of typecasting in C

S.NoTypes of typecasting in C Programming
1Implicit Conversion
2Explicit Conversion

 

1. Implicit conversion

Implicit conversions do not require any operator for converted. They are automatically performed when a value is copied to a compatible type in the program.

Here, the value of a has been promoted from int to double and we have not had to specify any type-casting operator. This is known as a standard conversion.

Example :-

1#include<stdio.h>
 2#include<conio.h>
 3void main()
 4{
 5      int i=20;
 6      double p;
 7      clrscr();
 8
 9      p=i; // implicit conversion
10
11      printf(“implicit value is %d”,p);
12
13      getch();
14}

 

Output:-
implicit value is 20.

 

2. Explicit conversion

In C language, Many conversions, especially those that imply a different interpretation of the value, require an explicit conversion. We have already seen two notations for explicit type conversion.

They are not automatically performed when a value is copied to a compatible type in the program.

Example :-

 1#include<stdio.h>
 2#include<conio.h>
 3void main()
 4{
 5      int i=20;
 6      short p;
 7      clrscr();
 8
 9      p = (short) i; // Explicit conversion
10
11      printf(“Explicit value is %d”,p);
12
13      getch();
14}

Output:-
Explicit value is 20.

 

Usual Arithmetic Conversion

The usual arithmetic conversions are implicitly performed to cast their values in a common type, C uses the rule that, in all expressions except assignments, any implicit type conversions made from a lower size type to a higher size type as shown below:

usual_arithmetic_conversion

 

Inbuilt Typecast Functions In C:

There are many inbuilt typecasting functions available in C language which performs data type conversion from one type to another.

 

S.NoTypecast FunctionDescription
1atof()     Convert string to Float
2atoi()Convert string to int
3atol()Convert string to long
4itoa()Convert int to string
5ltoa()Convert long to string

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Difference between type casting and type conversion

Whenever there is a need to convert one data type to another the two terms comes in our mind “type casting” and “type conversion”. When the two types are compatible with each other, then the conversion of one type to other is done automatically by the compiler that is cold type conversion but remember we can store a large data type into the other for example we can not store a float into int because a float is greater than int. whereas, type casting is to be explicitly done by the programmer.

BASIS FOR COMPARISONTYPE CASTINGTYPE CONVERSION
DefinitionWhen a user can convert the one data type into other then it is called as the type casting.Type Conversion is that which automatically converts the one data type into another.
ImplementedImplemented on two ‘incompatible’ data types.Implemented only when two data types are ‘compatible’.
OperatorFor casting a data type to another, a casting operator ‘()’ is required.No operator required.
ImplementedIt is done during program designing.It is done explicitly while compiling.
Conversion typeNarrowing conversion.Widening conversion.
Exampleint x;
byte y;


y= (byte) x;
int x=3;
float y;
y=a; // value in y=3.000.

 

 You can download the pdf file for type casting in c language- pdf.

 

As we have discussed how we can easily type cast from float to int and int to char. Hope you cleared your learning concepts for c programming language. Happy coding! Please feel free to send your queries to info@improgrammer.net; we are happy to help you. 🙂

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